elements, magnesium, manganese


Presented by NSW Agriculture
Author: R. G. Weir, Special Chemist Division of Plant Industries (Reviewed January 2003).


Magnesium deficiency is chiefly a problem of the acid, leached soils of the coast, but it also occurs in citrus orchards along the Murray River, in both acid and alkaline soils.

Symptoms develop on mature leaves at any season of the year, but most usually as the fruit is maturing, especially in limbs bearing a heavy crop. Yellow blotches start near the centre of the leaves, and eventually coalesce to form, the tree becoming heavily defoliated while cropping declines. New leaves are at first a normal green, but in severe cases may yellow before they are one year old.

In moderately acid soil use magnesite (magnesium carbonate) at an initial rate of 1 tonne per hectare. Subsequent applications will depend on the severity of symptoms and size of the trees.

If the soil is very acid some lime may be used with the magnesite; the ratio of lime to magnesite can be varied according to the degree of soil acidity. Dolomite may be used if a good quality material is obtainable. Soil applications can take 2 to 3 years to correct the symptoms, but the treatment is long-lasting and may not need repeating for 3 to 5 years. Liming materials such as magnesite or dolomite are not effective in alkaline or neutral soils.

For quick action or in alkaline soils, use a foliar spray of magnesium nitrate. This is made by mixing 1 kg each of calcium nitrate and magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) in 100 L of water plus 500 mL white oil or a wetting agent. The spray should be used when spring flush leaves are about half to two-thirds grown (October-November). Foliar spray treatments need to be repeated annually, and should be supplemented by a soil dressing of magnesite to obtain both quick and long-lasting results.


Manganese deficiency is indicated when leaves become mottled with lighter green or yellowish green areas between the major veins. The veins themselves and bands of tissue on each side remain green. Both young and mature leaves may show symptoms. Where the deficiency is mild the pattern gradually disappears as the leaves age, but if the deficiency is severe the pattern persists in mature leaves.

Persistent severe deficiency results in reduced cropping and growth. The leaves are not reduced in size as they are in zinc deficiency. Manganese deficiency occurs in:

  • Acid coastal soils where the manganese content is low
  • Alkaline soils, where manganese may be present but unavailable to the plant

Manganese is best applied as a foliar spray in spring or summer, when new growth is being made.
Where severe, persistent deficiency exists, use 100 g manganese sulphate in 100 L water. Do not spray if rain is expected within 48 hours.

If zinc is also deficient, make up a composite spray with 150 g zinc sulphate and 100 g manganese sulphate in 100 L water.

A more weather-resistant spray can be made from 500 g manganese sulphate, 250 g hydrated lime, 100 L water and 500 mL white oil emulsion. For a mild deficiency 200 to 300 g of manganese sulphate per 100 L of water, plus 100 to 150 g of hydrated lime, is sufficient.

Dissolve the manganese sulphate in the spray tank with most of the water. Mix the hydrated lime to a thin cream and pour through a fine mesh filter into the tank, with the agitator working. The white oil should be broken down with a little water and added last.

Warning: As the manganese/ lime spray produces a dark and persistent residue you should time spray applications to avoid marking the fruit.

Edited by A. T. Munroe
Division of Agricultural Services ISSN 0725-7759

amino acids, primer, corn steep liquor



Corn Steep Powder (CSP) is a fine, yellow to yellow-brown, water-soluble powder made by spray drying corn steep liquor (CSL). Corn steep liquor is a concentrated liquid derived from the water that is used in the initial stage of the corn wet milling process. Once considered a waste stream byproduct, its properties lent well for other uses.  The tan to brown liquid is denser than water and has an acid pH (3.7 - 4.7). Since it contains 40 to 60% water soluble corn solids, it has a variety of nutrients. CSL has nitrogen in the form of amino acids and peptides, macro and micronutrients, and vitamins.  Because of this, it is particularly useful as an ingredient in microbiological growth media, or can be combined with gluten into an animal feed supplement. Most recently it has been shown to be useful as a fertilizer, for the production of food, in the production of microbial products, and has some industrial applications.

phosphorous, fertifacts

By Dr. Wes Chun Ph.D
Chief Science Officer, Grower's Secret

Phosphorous deficiencyPhosphorus, like nitrogen, is a member of the pnictogen group and was the thirteenth element to be discovered and the first element that was chemically discovered by Hennig Brand in 1669. It is one of the three major essential elements needed by plants simply because of the amounts that are utilized by the plant. Phosphorus is the only element that was discovered through a disgusting process involving the concentration of urine. 

GS Nitrogen


Ferti-Facts: Nitrogen - A Change in Tradition


Daniel Rutherford discovered the existence of nitrogen by first depleting oxygen from air. He accomplished this by asphyxiating a mouse in a closed jar, burning a candle until it went out in the jar, and burning phosphorus until it would not burn. The remaining gas was passed through a carbon dioxide absorbing solution.     The remaining gas (which is now almost pure nitrogen gas) did not support the burning of a candle or life of a mouse. He referred to this gas as noxious or phlogisticated air (Phlogiston was a postulated element that was released from combustible bodies when burned).